# Physics 103 Study Guide Test #1

This is the only study guide you will get this semester. In the future (and for practice now), I suggest you go through all the notes, homework, readings, and labs, and write a list of important topics (this is basically what I have done). In addition, I have included some sample exam questions and referenced to homework questions that will be similar to test questions also.

Calculators will be allowed at the test

### Observing

• Know the brightest stars we've been looking at during our observing sessions.
• How does the position of the north star change in the weeks we've been looking at it?
• Positions of constellations we've been looking at.
• Colors of stars.

### The Sky

• Size and scale. What is bigger, a galaxy or a planet?
• The projected sky. Are stars in constellations really near each other?
• Motion of stars.
• Seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses. Be able to explain why they happen.
• Solstices and equinoxes. Know what they are.
• Angular measure. How many arc minutes are in a degree? Know how to apply this. Know the difference between linear and angular size and how to find one from the other.

End of Chapter (Prologue) questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 1, 4, 5, 6
True or False: 1, 2, 4, 7-9
Fill in the Blank: 1, 3, 5, 9, 10
Problems: 9

### Copernican Revolution

• Planetary motion. In what way do planets move that stars don't?
• Differences between geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe.
• Scientific method. What is it? How can it be applied to models of the universe?
• Sample question:
Which of the following arguments against the heliocentric model is a valid argument according to the scientific method? A. It predicted planetary motions and events no better than the Geocentric system.
B. The earth does not move (things do not fly off).
C. The earth is different from the heavens and cannot be part of the heavens.
• The observations of Tycho Brahe and Galileo Galilei changed our understanding of the universe. No longer were the heavens perfect and unchanging. What observations did they make that supported this? What observations did they make that supported either heliocentric or geocentric models of the universe?
• Kepler's Laws. Know them.
End of Chapter 1 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 1, 5, 7, 12
True or False: 3, 5, 7, 8-10
Fill in the Blank: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8
Problems: 3, 5, 6
Plus the additional questions from homework #1.

### Light and Matter

• Sample question:
A. Give one example of how we can learn about objects in space through methods other than passively relying upon light traveling to us?
B. Can this method realistically be used for objects outside the solar system?
• The electromagnetic spectrum. Wavelengths and frequencies.
• Blackbody radiation: temperature, color, and flux. Atoms in motion.
• Continuum, absorption, and emission spectra.
• Kirchhoff's Laws.
• Sample question:
You are observing a moon of Saturn. It appears to be blue in color. You know that it's blue either because it's: a. hot; b. reflecting blue light; or c. emitting blue lines in its spectra. How do you test between these possibilities?
• Greenhouse effect. Including how it applies to the atmospheres of earth and venus (this is in later chapters).
• Doppler shift.
End of Chapter 2 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15
True or False: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13
Fill in the Blank: 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14
Problems: 3
Plus additional problems #1 and #2 from homework #2.
Also review Part 1 of Lab #2.

### Telescopes

• Refractors vs. reflectors.
• Sensitivity and resolution.
• atmospheric seeing.
• Sample question:
Order these 3 objects brightest to dimmest.
a) Altair (First magnitude)
b) Mars (magnitude -0.2)
c) Mizar (Third magnitude)
Review Lab #1, particularly questions: 1, 4, 5.

### The solar system

• What is the solar system? What is it made of?
• Which planets were discovered?
• Mass and density
• Terrestrial and Jovian planets. differences and similarities
• Pluto and Charon
• Sample question:
Which of the following is not a reason to demote pluto from planetary status?
a. It is small.
b. It is spherical.
c. It doesn't fit into either the terrestrial or jovian planet categories.
d. It is in a strange (highly elliptical, highly eccentric) orbit.
• Formation of the solar system. Differentiation.
End of Chapter 4 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 1, 11, 14
True or False: 1, 2, 3, 12, 13
Fill in the Blank: 1
End of Chapter 8 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 14
True or False: 14, 15
Problems: 10

### Solar System Debris

• Asteroids. Where are they located? Trojans, NEAs
• Asteroid composition. How do we know?
• How many are there? How big are they?
• What is the main surface feature on asteroids? Is it exogenic or endogenic?
• Comets. What are they made of? Where are they located?
• Sample question:
Why do comets have tails and asteroids don't?
• What causes meteor showers?
• Types of meteorites.
• Asteroid-meteorite connection. Where do meteorites come from?
• What makes impact craters?
• What determines the size of an impact crater (recall lab 3)?
End of Chapter 4 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 3, 5, 9
True or False: 5, 6, 10, 11
Fill in the Blank: 3, 5, 8

### Earth and Moon

• Sample question:
Which is larger, the distance from the earth to the moon or the radius of the sun?
• Tides
• Planetary interiors.
• Differentiated planet vs. homogenous
• surface altering processes and the rocks they make
• Earth's atmosphere.
• What forms the aurora?
• Moon: interior and surface.
• origin of the moon
• Lunar exploration
End of Chapter 5 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 6, 9, 10, 15
True or False: 1, 2, 7, 14
Fill in the Blank: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11

### Terrestrial Planets

• Similarities and differences between terrestrial planet properties. Which is the biggest? Hottest? etc.
• Mercury's orbit
• planetary interiors
• Planetary surface features. What features can be found on which planet?
• Sample question:
Why is it difficult to observe surface features on Venus?
How can this difficulty be overcome?
• Comparative planetology
End of Chapter 6 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 1, 9, 11
True or False: 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 15
Fill in the Blank: 5, 8, 10, 12, 14
Also, homework #4, particularly question 4.

### Jovian Planets

• Similarities and differences between jovian planet properties. Which is the biggest? strangest orbit? etc.
• What are the jovian planets made of?
• Sample question:
Based on the size of the Jovian planets, would you expect them to have more or less energy than terrestrial planets? Where does the energy go?
• Planetary rings. Composition and size. Structure. Why?
End of Chapter 7 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 2, 7, 12
True or False: 1, 5, 8, 12
Fill in the Blank: 1, 3, 5, 10, 12
End of Chapter 8 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 8, 11
True or False: 5
Fill in the Blank: 7

### Satellites of the outer solar system

• Properties. Which is the biggest?
• Galilean Satellite interiors
• Sample question:
What are the Galilean Satellites?
• Surface processes that occur on the largest satellites (especially galilean satellites)
• Tidal heating
• Comparative planetology
End of Chapter 8 questions to review:
Review and Discussion: 1, 5
True or False: 1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 12
Fill in the Blank: 3, 9
Go back to homework #4. What if I included pictures from the surfaces of satellites?