A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. There seem to be three basic types of conjunctions. They are: coordinating conjunctions used to connect two independent clauses, subordinating conjunctions used to establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence, and correlative conjunctions which always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.

Need a list of the various conjunction types? http://www.virtualsalt.com/conjunct.htm

 

DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

The developmental order of acquisition for the main types of conjunctions is: coordinating - subordinating - correlative. An attempt (see below) has also been made to order the specific conjunction lexicon within each of the main conjunction types.

 

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. The seven coordinating conjunctions in English are:

FOR - is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause

AND - joins two similar ideas together

NOR - The conjunction nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither-nor

BUT - joins two contrasting ideas together

OR - joins two alternative ideas

YET - is very similar to 'but' as it also joins two contrasting ideas together

SO - shows that the second idea is the result of the first

An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions.

Among the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, are AND, BUT and OR.

 

DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

FOR and AND are listed in the preprimer Dolch word list http://www.geminischool.org/sheppard/reading/dolch.html

BUT and SO are listed in the primer Dolch word list http://www.geminischool.org/sheppard/reading/dolch.html

OR is listed in the second grade Dolch word list http://www.geminischool.org/sheppard/reading/dolch.html

Since AND, BUT and OR are the most commonly used coordinating conjunctions, it may be best to concentrate on just these three in planning therapy. Children would learn to:

1. join two similar ideas - AND

2. join two contrasting ideas - BUT

3. join two alternative ideas - SO

 

WEB SITES FOR COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/coconj1.htm Ten fill in the blank sentences. Students must complete the sentences by choosing the best coordinating conjunction for each space. You could simplify this task by providing students with a list of possible correct answers to choose from.

http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/lb/anbutor.html Ten fill in the blank statements. Students must fill in the conjunctions [and, but, or] to complete the sentence.

http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s51/08/chapterA1.html Fifth grade level. This exercise examines both coordinating and correlative conjunctions. Twenty-five questions. Students are given feedback for both correct and incorrect answers.

http://www.lbcc.cc.or.us/dev-studies/exercises/unit_2/ce-u2-00.html Here is an exercise for a secondary or high school student. The lesson comes with complete directions and 10 opportunities to combine each pair of simple sentences into one compound sentence by using the appropriate coordinating conjunction.

http://www.writing.okstate.edu/exercise.htm Seven pairs of sentences are listed here. Students are asked to combine them with the appropriate coordinating conjunction. Content is suitable for younger children. Answers are available.

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/1979/grammar/sobutorand.html WOW!! 37 questions here which students are asked to supply the correct conjunction to complete the sentence. Students select from the coordinating conjunctions: SO, AND, BUT, OR.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_7.pdf Students are asked to read the ten sentences and determine if the conjunction used was a coordinating or subordinating type. They are also asked to list the conjunctions under the appropriate heading in a chart. Answers to the exercise may be found at http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_7A.pdf

http://www.writing.okstate.edu/exercise.htm Here's a short simple exercise. A few sentence pairs, and students are asked to make a single sentence by using a coordinating conjunction.

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause. There are numerous subordinating conjunctions. The more commonly used ones are listed below. For a more comprehensive list see http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm#nor

BECAUSE, AS, SINCE - are used to introduce the cause in a cause effect relationship between two ideas

SO - introduces an effect in a cause effect relationship between two ideas

ALTHOUGH, (even) THOUGH, WHEREAS, WHILE - are used to express contrast between ideas

AFTER - is used to show time

DEVELOPMENTAL ORDER

Of the subordinating conjunctions, the only one listed as a frequently occurring conjunction used by children from preprimer to third grade is AS. AS is listed in the Dolch first grade word list. http://www.geminischool.org/sheppard/reading/dolch.html

Although documentation of the developmental order of the remaining subordinate conjunctions is missing, the best guess scenario would be:

BECAUSE and SINCE, as they also introduce the cause in a cause-effect relationship

SO would likely seem to follow as it introduces the effect in a cause-effect relationship

ALTHOUGH, (even) THOUGH, WHEREAS, WHILE may follow next as they express the contrast between ideas

AFTER which expresses time concepts

 

WEB SITES FOR SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp6.htm There are eight multiple choice questions in this exercise using conjunctions to express cause-effect. Four choices to choose from when selecting the correct one to complete the sentence.

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp7.htm There are five chances to respond in this exercise. Students are asked to type their response and the program will check it for correctness. The student's task is to read two sentences and a conjunction. Then they are asked to make one sentence from the original two using the conjunction provided.

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/subcon1.htm Eight questions asking the student to supply the correct subordinating conjunction to complete the sentence.

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/subcon2.htm Six opportunities to respond in this exercise. Students are given two sentences. They are asked to combine the sentences using the subordinating conjunction in parentheses. For example: "I put my coat on." "It was cold." (because) ---> I put my coat on because it was cold."

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/subcon1.htm This site offers students eight multiple choice statements. They are asked to choose the best subordinating conjunction for each sentence.

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/advcls1.htm In this exercise, your task is to choose the correct subordinating conjunction to fill the space at the beginning of the adverb clause. There are 10 opportunities to respond to a multiple choice format.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_7.pdf Students are asked to read the ten sentences and determine if the conjunction used was a coordinating or subordinating type. They are also asked to list the conjunctions under the appropriate heading in a chart. Answers to the exercise may be found at http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_7A.pdf

 

COrrelative CONJUNCTIONS

Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions.

both . . . and

not only . . . but also

not . . . but

either . . . or

neither . . . nor

whether . . . or

as . . . as

WEB SITES FOR CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS:

http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/blpaired.htm Here is a lesson plan for paired conjunctions. This plan not only explains what you will be teaching, but also gives activities for your student to complete. Good for upper-intermediate level students. Can be used in a classroom setting, or with a small group.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/correlative_conjunctions_1.pdf Ten fill in the blank statements. Students must choose the correct answer from a list of correlative conjunction pairs.

http://esl.lbcc.cc.ca.us/eesllessons/correlative conjunctions/corconfb.htm Fifteen fill in the blank statements. Each needs the correct pair of correlative conjunctions.

http://www.cc.ysu.edu/~tacopela/Correl-wendell-ex.htm This site is entitled "Parallelism with Correlative Conjunctions and Sentence-Completing Exercises". There are 18 sentence pairs provided and a model as to how the sentence pairs should be rewritten into a single sentence using a pair of correlative conjunctions. The content used at this site makes it most appropriate for high school students.

 

WEB SITES GALORE:

http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/conjunctions.htm Fifteen opportunities to respond. Six sentences are provided and the student is asked to identify the conjunction in each sentence. Seven pairs of sentences are offered and the student must create a single sentence using the appropriate conjunction. One opportunity asks the student to find conjunctions in sentences in their reading books. The final task offers a pair of sentences and the student is asked to make as many different meanings with the sentences by using different conjunctions.

http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/v/s/ab-conjunctions.html SPANISH - This web site displays a conjunction in English and asks a student to find the Spanish equivalent from among five choices. There are 52 questions in all.

http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/vm/conj01.html Ten sentences. Students are asked to fill in the missing conjunction to complete the sentence. This is a multiple choice format exercise.

http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/vm/conj02.html For each of the ten opportunities presented here there are two short simple sentences. Students are asked to combine the sentences using the conjunction given in parentheses. Conjunctions: after, when, if, until, by the time, whereas, yet, since, even though, and while are tested.

http://itc.sulross.edu/raustin/conjunct.htm Here's a page you can print out. Have your more advanced student underline the conjunctions in the sentences. In the space provided, place an "S" for subordinating conjunction, a "C" for coordinating conjunction, or a "P" for paired conjunction. Answers are available at this web site.

http://eslus.com/LESSONS/GRAMMAR/POS/pos8.htm#Pop%20Quiz%201 For the more advanced student. Here are ten questions. Some of the questions ask, "What conjunction best fits..." Other questions ask what conjunctions are used for.

http://www.better-english.com/grammar/conjunctions.htm 20 multiple choice questions in this exercise. Content consists of typical sentences you might hear in a business setting. Because of the content, this exercise is probably best suited for high school students. The conjunctions tested are: A) so that, B) as long as, C) while, D) until, E) as if.

http://www.better-english.com/grammar/con2.htm 20 multiple choice questions in this exercise. Content consists of typical sentences you might hear in a business setting. Because of the content, this exercise is probably best suited for high school students. The conjunctions tested are: A) so, B) so that, C) although, D) when, E) since.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_1.pdf This site offers pictures. Students are asked to create two sentences for each picture and then combine them into one sentence using the appropriate conjunction.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_2.pdf This site gives you ten different sentence pairs.

Students are asked to create a single sentence from the sentence pairs.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_3.pdf Here are ten sentences and students are asked to just fill in the appropriate conjunction.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_4.pdf This is a recognition exercise. Students are asked to read (or you could read them to your student) 10 sentences and find the conjunctions. Then they are asked to list all the conjunctions they have found.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_5.pdf At this site students are asked to find the conjunction and determine its meaning. Then they are asked to use their imagination and complete the sentence. 10 sentences in all.

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_6.pdf Ten sentences with their conjunctions missing. Students are asked to fill in the conjunction. Answers are available at http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_6A.pdf

http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_8.pdf The directions for this web site are: Join each pair of sentences with the suitable conjunction. Answers are found at http://www.stufun.com/exercise/conjunctions_8A.pdf

http://www.dailygrammar.com/076to080.html Here are five short lessons on different types of conjunctions. Each lesson has a short exercise following the lesson.

http://www.dailygrammar.com/081to085.html Four more lessons on conjunctions and one lesson on interjections. There are quizzes after each lesson.

http://www.dailygrammar.com/201to205.html Another batch of short lessons on coordinating and correlative conjunctions. Quizzes follow the lessons.