The acquisition of pronouns can be very confusing because of the abstract nature of their existence in the language . In addition, like prepositions, the same pronoun can be used to convey different meanings, depending on how it is positioned in a string of words. We could get along just fine without pronouns, but we use them for reasons of economy of speaking.
At the most rudimentary level, SLPs teach children that a pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like ``he,'' ``which,'' ``none,'' and ``you'' to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. http://members.attcanada.ca/~the2imps/turefpronoun.html , http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/nouns/pronoun.htm , http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/pronouns1.htm , http://www.james.rtsq.qc.ca/Virtgram/pronounsth.htm are web sites which explain the different types of pronouns in a fairly straightforward manner.
The following page will deal with a few of the pronouns that are most frequently taught by SLPs.
developmental order & meanings communicated with different pronouns
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession. What you are teaching the child to communicate is who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are ``mine,'' ``yours,'' ``hers,'' ``his,'' ``its,'' ``ours,'' and ``theirs.''
When teaching demonstrative pronouns, you are teaching the child to communicate that the pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. ``This'' and ``these'' refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while ``that'' and ``those'' refer to things that are farther away in space or time. The demonstrative pronouns are ``this,'' ``that,'' ``these,'' and ``those.'' ``This'' and ``that'' are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and ``these'' and ``those'' are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.
A personal pronoun allows a child to communicate about a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case. PERSON is either 1st (the speaker), 2nd (the person being spoken to), or 3rd (the person outside of the communication situation, who is being spoken about). NUMBER is either singular or plural. GENDER is either masculine, feminine, or neuter. CASE refers to the position in the sentence the pronoun can occupy such as the subject (before the verb) or object (after the verb). The subjective personal pronouns are ``I,'' ``you,'' ``she,'' ``he,'' ``it,'' ``we,'' ``you,'' ``they". The objective personal pronouns are: ``me,'' ``you,'' ``her,'' ``him,'' ``it,'' ``us,'' ``you,'' and ``them''.
Teach a child that you can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are ``myself,'' ``yourself,'' ``herself,'' ``himself,'' ``itself,'' ``ourselves,'' ``yourselves,'' and ``themselves.''
The communication intent of an indefinite pronoun is to refer to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are ``all,'' ``another,'' ``any,'' ``anybody,'' ``anyone,'' ``anything,'' ``each,'' ``everybody,'' ``everyone,'' ``everything,'' ``few,'' ``many,'' ``nobody,'' ``none,'' ``one,'' ``several,'' ``some,'' ``somebody,'' and ``someone.''
http://www.rhlschool.com/eng1n12.htm A fairly easy recognition task. Students are simply asked to underline the possessive pronouns in the sentences.
http://studyspanish.com/print/posspro.htm This web site is a lesson in SPANISH possessive pronouns. It also contrasts possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. It could be used as a site from which you could get examples of Spanish possessive pronouns.
http://www.eflnet.com/index.htm This is a seven question quiz. The student is asked to replace words in a sentence with an appropriate possive pronoun. Fairly easy task.
http://conversa1.com/possessivepronouns.htm Sections 4 and 5 at this web site are exercises to practice using possessive pronouns. This is a fill in the blank format.
http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/vc-pronouns-lb.html Easy level. Ten fill in the blank statements all requiring a possessive pronoun.
http://www.studyspanish.com/sounds/exercises/posspro_s.htm SPANISH - This site is an oral lesson in Spanish possessive pronouns. The student is shown a word in both Spanish and in English and is asked to generate the appropriate possessive pronoun in Spanish, which goes with the target word. A Spanish speaker then gives the correct response.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/poss1.htm A ten question multiple choice task testing both possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives. Easy level.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/poss2.htm This is a short two paragraph story about The Mysterious Volkswagen. Student must fill in eight possessive pronouns to complete the story. A high interest level task.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/poss3.htm This is a fun task. Students are given a sentence and are asked to rewrite it into another form. If the sentence uses a possessive adjective, the student must rewrite it using a possessive pronoun. Students must attend to word order and correct forms.
http://www4.topnet.it/dina/adapt/AdaptEng1/grammar1/exercises/pronouns/possesivepronouns.htm Eight fill in the blank sentences using possessive pronouns. Both singular and plural possessive pronouns are used. Easy level.
http://www4.topnet.it/dina/adapt/AdaptEng1/grammar1/exercises/pronouns/vc-pronouns-lb.htm Ten multiple choice questions testing possessive pronouns.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/poss1.htm Just five questions. Students must change each sentence so that it uses a possessive pronoun instead of a possessive adjective. Very straightforward easy task.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s61/09/chapterA1.html Sixth grade level possessive pronoun task. Twenty-five questions for students to respond to. Both answers and explanations are given.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s71/15/chapterA1.html Seventh grade level task. Twenty-five questions on possessive pronouns for students to respond to. Both answers and explanations are given.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN WEB SITES:
http://www.le.ac.uk/english/jmc21/legp/pron6a.html A very straightforward 7 question multiple choice quiz on demonstrative pronouns. Very easy level.
http://www.james.rtsq.qc.ca/Virtgram/demonspron.htm A six question fill in the blank quiz. It tests both singular and plural demonstrative pronouns. Very easy level.
http://www.stufun.com/exercise/kinds_of_pronouns-demonstrative_1.pdf Five fill in the blank statements testing demonstrative pronouns.
http://www.columbia.edu/~fms5/hdem.html SPANISH Ten fill in the blank statements which require either a demonstrative pronoun or demonstrative adjective to complete them.
PERSONAL PRONOUN WEB SITES:
http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/pronouns.htm This site asks a student to replace words in a sentence with the appropriate personal pronoun.
http://www.eslpartyland.com/quiz center/ataparty.htm Ten multiple choice questions assessing both singular and plural personal pronouns.
http://www.learnline.ntu.edu.au/studyskills/wr/sentences/pronoun2q.html A dozen questions in multiple choice format. All questions are looking for the correct personal pronoun to complete the sentence.
http://www.zrsss.si/~viljenka/per_pronounc.htm This site offers a chart with fourteen small graphics. Students are asked to identify the pictures with the appropriate personal pronoun. They choose from I, you, he, she, it, we, or they. After the student (or teacher) has typed in the answer, you can check the responses. If a student wants a hint, place the cursor in the answer box and click on hint. The first letter of the answer will appear. Might be a good idea to have the student generate a sentence or phrase using the pronoun.
http://www2.arnes.si/~oskplucija4/personalp.htm This is an interesting site. Students must read a sentence, and then pick the most appropriate next sentence from a set of sentences. Most of the sentences start with a personal pronoun, so the task becomes one of matching the appropriate pronouns for the pair of sentences. Semi-difficult.
http://www2.arnes.si/~oskplucija4/perspron.hmt This is a short paragraph students must read and complete by adding in the correct personal pronoun. Nine chances to respond. The program checks for correct responses and gives hints if a student gets stuck.
http://www.edufind.com/test/flash/test.cfm?NTest=21&TSID=31978 High level task. Student is presented with a sentence and is asked to identify the INCORRECTLY USED personal pronoun. This site uses some very high level graphics, so interest levels ought to remain high. It is, however, a difficult task.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s41/10/chapterA1.html Fourth grade level. This 10 question quiz asks students to differentiate between subject and object case (position in the sentence relative to the verb) personal pronouns. Answers are not only provided, but an explanation of why the answer is correct is given.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s41/11/chapterA1.html Fourth grade level. This exercise tests a student's knowledge of pronoun-verb agreement. Pronouns and verbs must agree in number, so this is testing proper use of singular and plural personal pronouns.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s61/08/chapterA1.html Sixth grade level. Twenty-five opportunities to respond to a variety of questions about personal pronouns. Answers and explanations are provided.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s71/14/chapterA1.html Seventh grade level task. Twenty-five questions mostly asking students to differentiate between subjective and objective case personal pronouns. Answers and explanations are provided.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/04/chapterA1.html Eighth grade level. Twenty-five questions. Students are asked to choose between nominative, objective, or possessive case personal pronouns. Answers and explanations are provided.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN WEB SITES:
http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/js/tm/fb-reflexive.html There are 21 chances to complete a sentence by filling in the correct reflexive pronoun. Each response can be checked immediately. A running percentage score of correct responses is kept by the program.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/reflex1.htm Simply type in the correct reflexive pronoun to complete the sentence. If a student gets stuck, it is possible to get a first letter clue. Eight fill in the blank statements. Easy level.
The sites listed below assess a variety of different pronoun types in the exercises. These sites are useful after a student has learned individual pronoun types and can answer questions by shifting between pronoun types.
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/2/unit3.html This is a second grade level quiz which assesses the child's knowledge on the difference between nouns and pronouns. Answers to the quiz are found at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/2/ans_key2.html
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/3/unit6.html This is a third grade level quiz on pronouns. Seems to be rather difficult because in the ten multiple choice questions students are quizzed about subjective and objective personal pronouns, the order of pronouns when using two in a single sentence, possessive pronouns, and pronoun contractions. Answers to the quiz are found at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/3/ans_key3.html
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/4/unit6.html This is a fourth grade level quiz. Seems to be rather difficult because in the ten multiple choice questions students are quizzed about subjective and objective personal pronouns, the order of pronouns when using two in a single sentence, possessive pronouns, and pronoun contractions. Answers to the quiz are found at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/4/ans_key4.html
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/5/unit6.html Fifth grade level pronoun quiz. It tests the pronoun notions of possession, singular-plural, order, and contractions. Answers to the quiz are found at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/k_5/quizzes/5/ans_key5.html
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/6_8/quizzes/6/unit6.html Sixth grade level task. This quiz assesses some individual pronoun meaning, but is more of a metalinguistic task as it asks for several correct-incorrect judgments.
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/6_8/quizzes/7/unit6.html Seventh grade level task. Assesses a variety of different pronoun types.
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/hme/6_8/quizzes/8/unit6.html Eighth grade level task. Assesses a variety of different pronoun types.
http://cfcc.net/rmorris/quiz5.html This is a very high level quiz. It stresses the use of the appropriate pronoun within the context of complex sentences.
http://grammar.uoregon.edu/pronouns/pronounquiz1/Iquizprn.html 20 questions. This exercise assesses all types of pronouns. A multiple choice task. Fairly high level. Good content. A sentence is presented and the student is asked to identify the type of pronoun that was used. Choices are : a. personal pronoun b. relative pronoun c. indefinite pronoun d. demonstrative pronoun e. reflexive pronoun f. interrogative pronoun
http://grammar.uoregon.edu/pronouns/pronounquiz2/Iquizprn2.html 20 questions. This exercise assesses all types of pronouns. A multiple choice task. Fairly high level. Good content. A sentence is presented and the student is asked to identify the type of pronoun that was used. Choices are : a. personal pronoun b. relative pronoun c. indefinite pronoun d. demonstrative pronoun e. reflexive pronoun f. interrogative pronoun
http://www.uvsc.edu/owl/tests/pronouns/pronouns.html A high school level task. 20 multiple choice questions. The first five ask the student to choose the appropriate pronoun to complete the sentence. The last 15 questions are more of a metalinguistic task, asking the student if the sentence is correct. If incorrect, the student is asked to correct it.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/nouns/personal.htm High school level task. Scroll to the bottom of this web site and look for the exercise section. There are nine sentences. In each of the sentences a pronoun has been highlighted. What type of pronoun is it? Students are expected to name the pronoun type.
http://www4.topnet.it/dina/adapt/AdaptEng1/grammar1/exercises/pronouns/pronouns.htm 15 multiple choice questions testing a variety of different types of pronouns.
http://webster.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/pronoun_quiz.htm Easy level. Seven multiple choice questions. There are only two choices for each question. Tests a variety of pronoun types.
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/pron2_quiz.htm Ten multiple choice sentences. A unique feature of this site is they provide an explanation of why the answer is correct. This site is geared to understanding the grammatical rules, so might best be suited for intermediate level children.
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/niu/niu8.htm This site is testing reference and case features of pronouns. Half of the ten questions ask students to find the correct sentence from four alternatives. The final five questions ask the student to generate the correct pronoun to complete the sentence.
http://webster.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/who_quiz.htm This site assesses specifically 'who', 'who's, 'whose', whom', 'whoever', and 'whomever'. It contains 15 multiple choice questions. Just two choices per question.
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/which_quiz.htm Ten multiple choice questions testing the correct use of 'which', 'that', and 'who'. Each question offers an explanation of why the answer was correct.
http://webster.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/pronouns_add1.htm Ten multiple choice questions assessing a variety of pronoun types.
http://webster.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/pronouns_add2.htm Twenty questions. Multiple choice type of questions with two choices to choose from. A variety of different pronouns are tested.
http://webster.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/par_quiz.pl/pronouns_add4.htm Here students have to read a paragraph and decide if the pronouns used are correct or incorrect. Eight opportunities to respond.
http://www.ezschool.com/games/dinopronouns.html This is a fun little video game for young children. The exercise features a variety of pronoun types. Have fun playing.
http://www.edufind.com/test/flash/test.cfm?NTest=21&TSID=31978 A fairly high level quiz testing personal pronouns. Ability to read well is a requirement for this site. Multiple choice questions and lots of bells and whistles associated with interacting at this site.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/04/chapterA1.html This is a high level exercise. A statement is given and students are asked to determine if the pronoun used was objective, subjective, or possessive. What's nice about this site is it informs the students if their answer is correct or incorrect and why. Nice site for students studying the case of pronouns.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/13/chapterA1.html This is an exercise where the students are asked to idenify words in a sentence as either a noun or a pronoun. What's nice about this site is it informs the students if their answer is correct or incorrect and why.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/18/chapterA1.html Another quiz asking students to choose the correct pronoun. Explanations are given, as to whether the answer was correct or incorrect. A very straightforward task, and one that is fairly easy for upper elementary children.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/06/chapterA1.html This is a high level task. Students are given a sentence and then asked to identify the pronoun used as either: A. indefinite, B. interrogative, C. demonstrative, or D. personal. An explanation of the correct answer is supplied for each question.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s81/14/chapterA1.html This is more of a spelling task than a speaking task. Students are asked to supply the correct noun or pronoun. A high level task that differentiates between contractions.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s31/12/chapterA1.html Third grade level curriculum. Students are asked to correctly identify the correct pronoun. Answers are explained as to their appropriateness.
http://itc.sulross.edu/raustin/pronoun.htm Here are ten statements where students are asked to pick the correct pronoun that will agree in number and gender with the nouns in the sentence. Students must pick between two choices that are provided. A fairly difficult task (even though it doesn't sound like it).
http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/pronouns.htm Ten questions. A sentence is presented using a noun and students are asked to replace the noun with an appropriate pronoun. Easy task. Both possessive and personal pronouns are assessed.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s51/04/chapterA1.html Fifth grade level. A variety of pronouns are assessed here. This site might be best suited for use after a student has learned several different pronoun types (possessive, personal, interrogative, etc.) and the aim of the lesson is to differentiate them. Twenty-five questions in all. Answers and explanations are given.
http://www.learningshortcuts.com/s61/10/chapterA1.html Sixth grade level. Both interrogative and relative pronouns are assessed in this exercise. Twenty-five questions. Answers and explanations are given.
http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-directions.cgi?Grade=2&Unit=3&Topic=Nouns+and+Pronouns This is a game called Grammar Blast. Game Rules 1. Each game has 10 questions. Each question has 4 answer choices. 2. Read the question and choose the answer you think is correct. Then click the Are you right? button. 3. If you're right on the first try, you'll get 10 points. If you're right on the second try, you'll get 5 points. If you miss the second time, we'll give you the right answer. This is second grade level.
http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-directions.cgi?Grade=3&Unit=6&Topic=Pronouns This is a game called Grammar Blast. Game Rules 1. Each game has 10 questions. Each question has 4 answer choices. 2. Read the question and choose the answer you think is correct. Then click the Are you right? button. 3. If you're right on the first try, you'll get 10 points. If you're right on the second try, you'll get 5 points. If you miss the second time, we'll give you the right answer. This is third grade level.
http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-directions.cgi?Grade=4&Unit=6&Topic=Pronouns This is a game called Grammar Blast. Game Rules 1. Each game has 10 questions. Each question has 4 answer choices. 2. Read the question and choose the answer you think is correct. Then click the Are you right? button. 3. If you're right on the first try, you'll get 10 points. If you're right on the second try, you'll get 5 points. If you miss the second time, we'll give you the right answer. This is fourth grade level.
http://www.eduplace.com/cgi-bin/hme-quiz-directions.cgi?Grade=5&Unit=6&Topic=Pronouns This is a game called Grammar Blast. Game Rules 1. Each game has 10 questions. Each question has 4 answer choices. 2. Read the question and choose the answer you think is correct. Then click the Are you right? button. 3. If you're right on the first try, you'll get 10 points. If you're right on the second try, you'll get 5 points. If you miss the second time, we'll give you the right answer. This is fifth grade level.